You are required to submit high-resolution images, preferably with your initial submission but no later than revision stage. Computer-generated images may be processed only minimally. Processing (e.g., changing contrast, brightness, or colour balance) is acceptable only if applied to all parts of the image, as well as to the controls, equally, and descriptions of all such adjustments and the tools used (both hardware and software) must be provided in the manuscript. Unprocessed data and files must be retained by the authors and be provided to the editor on request. Electronic images (figures and schemes) must be at a minimum resolution of 600 d.p.i. for line drawings (black and white) and 300 d.p.i. for colour or greyscale. Colour figures must be supplied in CMYK not RGB colours. We cannot accept any Microsoft Office files (Power-Point, Word, Excel) for colour illustrations because they are restricted to the RGB colour space. Magnification is indicated by a scale bar. Please ensure that the prepared electronic image files print at a legible size (with lettering of at least 2 mm).
A number of different file formats are acceptable, including: PowerPoint (.ppt), Tagged Image File Format (.tif), Encapsulated PostScript (.eps), Joint Photographic Experts Group (.jpg), Graphics Interchange Format (.gif), Adobe Illustrator (.ai) (please save your files in Illustrator’s EPS format), Portable Network Graphics (.png), Microsoft Word (.doc), Rich Text Format (.rtf) and Excel (.xls) but not Portable Document Format (.pdf).
In the text, indicate where figures should appear: these call-outs are written as “Fig.1, Fig.2”, etc. Please ensure that the figure is clearly labelled with its figure number.
Size and layout: The area of a page is 230 mm (height); 84 mm (single) or 178 mm (double) (column width). Figures should not exceed these dimensions and ideally should fit either a single or double column. Lettering should be of a consistent size within each figure.
Colour figures: The use of colour in figures may improve clarity in some cases. Although there are no formal colour charges, the use of colour is subject to editorial discretion. If an Editor or the Production office recommend a colour figure to be printed in black and white and the author disagree, the author will be offered the option to pay for the colour, otherwise it will be printed in black and white.
Use of colour combinations: Please note that the use of red and green in figures is particularly problematic for approximately 5% of the male population. Advice on the preparation of colour-friendly figures is provided at
Representation of experimental data as computer images: If primary experimental data are presented in the form of a computer-generated image (such as those from a PhosphorImager or digital camera), any editing must be described in detail. A linear (rather than sigmoidal) relationship between signal and image intensity is assumed. Unless stated, it is assumed that the image is unedited.
Inappropriate manipulation of images to highlight desired results is not allowed.
Cover figures: Authors are encouraged to submit colour figures to be considered for use of the cover of Journal of Biotechnology and Biodiversity. If you would like to submit a cover image for consideration, please contact for details.