Manuscripts may be editorially rejected, without review, on the basis of lack of conformity to the standards set forth in these Instructions.

Manuscripts should be submitted in double line spacing (a minimum of 6 mm between lines), including figure legends, table footnotes, and references, and number all pages in sequence, including the abstract, figure legends, and tables. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible.

All pages should be numbered (title page is 1, number each page top right) and manuscript pages should have line numbers; manuscripts without line numbers may be editorially rejected by the editor, with a suggestion of resubmission after line numbers are added. The font size should be no smaller than 12 points. Set the page size to A4 size. Use 2.5-cm (1 inch) margins on all four sides. In particular, do not use the program’s options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. It is recommended that the following sets of characters be easily distinguishable in the manuscript: the numeral zero (0) and the letter “oh” (O); the numeral one (1), the letter “el” (l), and the letter “eye” (I); and a multiplication sign (X) and the letter “ex” (x). For units of measurement please follow the Système International (SI). Always respect the space between the number and the unit (e.g., 100 °C, 25 mg). Please use decimal points rather than commas for numbers. Use small “l” for liter. Genus and species of microorganisms are written in full the first time the name appears in text; subsequently, only use the first letter of the genus, followed by the species (e.g., Escherichia coli, then E. coli). Note the space between the genus abbreviation and the species. Follow guidelines of the International Nomenclature Committee. For restriction enzymes, DNA methyltransferases and homing endonucleases should be named or referred to using the conventions described in Roberts, R.J. et al. (2003) Nucleic Acids Res., 31, 1805-1812. Note that restriction enzyme names should NOT be italicized.

Do not create symbols as graphics or use special fonts that are external to your word processing program. Special characters should be inserted using the Symbol font. When using Greek letters, use the “font” command and not “insert”. Genetic loci are italicized; protein products of the loci are not italicized. Latin words in current use, such as in vitro/vivo/situ, via, et al., a posterior, etc., are not italicized (note the use of abbreviation points for expressions such as cf., e.g., i.e., et al., etc., which appear in roman type).

Manuscripts should be ordered into sections as follows: Title Page, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, References, Figure Legends. Do not embed ‘graphically designed’ equations or tables, but prepare these using your word processing program’s facility. Do not use footnotes.

Each chapter is numbered according to international standard (1. – 1.1. – 1.1.1., etc.). For chapter headings, avoid using uppercase letters other than the first word, and do not use punctuation at the end.

Title Page

The title must be clearly intelligible to a non-specialist. Do not use jargon, nonstandard acronyms or abbreviations. Numbered series titles are not allowed. Avoid the main title/subtitle arrangement, complete sentences, and unnecessary articles.

On the title page, include the title, running title (not to exceed 55 characters and spaces), name of each author, each author’s affiliation and their full postal addresses, a footnote indicating the present address of any author no longer at the institution where the work was performed, a footnote indicating the up-to-date telephone and fax numbers, e-mail address, and present, complete postal address of the corresponding author and a footnote providing any abbreviations used in the paper.

Authors’ names: full first name followed by family name of each author. Superscript letters (a, b, etc.), not numbers, link the author’s name to his/her affiliation. The name of the author responsible for correspondence and proof correction is indicated by an asterisk (*) after the superscript letter. Use commas to separate names; do not use ‘and’ before the last author’s name.

Affiliations: The complete address (department and/or laboratory, college, university, and full postal address) for each author, preceded by the superscript letter (a, b, etc.) should follow the list of names. Each address is in a separate paragraph.


A structured abstract of your study is required for short communications and full length articles. The abstract must be clearly and concisely written in English, a single paragraph, not exceeding 250 words, and concisely summarize the basic content of the paper without presenting extensive experimental details. Avoid abbreviations and references, and do not includes diagrams and footnotes in the abstract. When it is essential to include a reference, use the same format as shown for the references section but omit the article title. Because the abstract will be published separately by abstracting services, it must be complete and understandable without reference to the text.

Keywords: below the abstract, provide a list of 3-6 keywords which exist in the MeSH® thesaurus. They are in uppercase letters, separated by semi-colons. They are used for indexing your paper and express the precise content.


The Introduction should supply sufficient background information to allow the reader to understand and evaluate the results of the present study without referring to previous publications on the topic. The introduction should also provide the hypothesis that was addressed or the rationale for the present study. The introduction should not summarize the results. Choose references carefully to provide the most salient background rather than an exhaustive review of the topic.

Materials and Methods

The Materials and Methods section should include sufficient technical information to allow the experiments to be repeated. When centrifugation conditions are critical, give enough information to enable another investigator to repeat the procedure: make of centrifuge, model of rotor, temperature, time at maximum speed, and centrifugal force (X g rather than revolutions per minute). For commonly used materials and methods (e.g., media and protein concentration determinations), a simple reference is sufficient. If several alternative methods are commonly used, it is helpful to identify the method briefly as well as to cite the reference. For example, it is preferable to state ”cells were broken by ultrasonic treatment as previously described (5)” rather than to state ”cells were broken as previously described (5).” This allows the reader to assess the method without constant reference to previous publications. Describe new methods completely and give sources of unusual chemicals, equipment, or microbial strains. When large numbers of microbial strains or mutants are used in a study, include tables identifying the immediate sources (i.e., sources from whom the strains were obtained) and properties of the strains, mutants, bacteriophages, plasmids, etc. A method, strain, etc., used in only one of several experiments reported in the paper may be described in the Results section or very briefly (one or two sentences) in a table footnote or figure legend. It is expected that the sources from whom the strains were obtained will be identified.


In the Results section, include the rationale or design of the experiments as well as the results; reserve extensive interpretation of the results for the Discussion section. Present the results as concisely as possible in one of the following: text, table(s), or figure(s). Data in tables (e.g., cpm of radioactivity) should not contain more significant figures than the precision of the measurement allows. Illustrations (particularly photomicrographs and electron micrographs) should be limited to those that are absolutely necessary to show the experimental findings. Number figures and tables in the order in which they are cited in the text, and be sure to cite all figures and tables.


The Discussion should provide an interpretation of the results in relation to previously published work and to the experimental system at hand and should not contain extensive repetition of the Results section or reiteration of the introduction. In short papers, the Results and Discussion sections may be combined.


The source of any financial support received for the work being published must be indicated in the Acknowledgments section. (It will be assumed that the absence of such an acknowledgment is a statement by the authors that no support was received.). The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’

The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘National Institutes of Health’, not ‘NIH’. Grant numbers should be given in brackets as follows: ‘[grant number 0123]’. Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘[grant numbers 0123, D421]’. Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency). Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number ‘to [author initials]’.

An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Cancer Institute [AB1234 to C.B., CC11223 to H.H.]; and the National Institutes of Health [hfhf223344].

Recognition of personal assistance should be given as a separate paragraph, as should any statements disclaiming endorsement or approval of the views reflected in the paper or of a product mentioned therein.


The References section must include all journal articles (both print and online), books and book chapters (both print and online), patents, theses and dissertations, published conference proceedings, meeting abstracts from published abstract books or journal supplements, letters (to the editor), and company publications, as well as in-press journal articles, book chapters, and books (publication title must be given). Please adhere strictly to the reference style of the journal. The reference style is ‘Embellished Vancouver’ system with numbers in the text. Indicate references by superscript numbers in the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given. Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text. Since title and byline information that is downloaded from PubMed does not show accents, italics, or special characters, authors should refer to the PDF files or hard-copy versions of the articles and incorporate the necessary corrections in the submitted manuscript. References to journals should contain names and initials of the author(s), article title, abbreviation of the name of the journal according to the List of Serial Title Word Abbreviations (International Serials Data System, 20, rue Bachaumont, 75002 Paris, France, ISBN 2-904938-02-8), year, volume number and page numbers. References to books should also include the title (of series and volume), initials and names of the editor(s), publisher, place of publication, year. For more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by ‘et al.’ The initial version of a paper published online can be cited by the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) but, if available, the reference should also include the citation of the final version. Authors should check all references carefully and in particular ensure that all references in the Reference section are cited in the text and vice versa. Note that multiple references or page spans under one number are not allowed. Personal communications, unpublished results, manuscripts submitted or in preparation, statistical packages, computer programs and web sites should be cited in the text only, NOT included in the References section. Accession numbers may be cited either within the text or in the form of a reference.

Legends of figures

Place all legends (including title for each) together on one page. Figures are consecutively numbered with Arabic numerals (Fig. 1, 2, etc.), according to the order of appearance in the main text. Legends should provide enough information so that the figure is understandable without frequent reference to the text. However, detailed experimental methods must be described in the Materials and Methods section, not in a figure legend. A method that is unique to one of several experiments may be reported in a legend only if the discussion is very brief (one or two sentences). Define all symbols used in the figure and define all abbreviation that is not used in the text. A maximum of 6 figures and tables (total) is allowed.


Tables that contain artwork, chemical structures, or shading must be submitted as illustrations in an acceptable format at the modification stage. The preferred format for regular tables is MS Word. Note that a straight Excel file is not currently an acceptable format. Excel files must be embedded in a MS Word. Tables should be formatted as follows. Arrange the data so that columns of like material read down, not across. The headings should be sufficiently clear so that the meaning of the data is understandable without reference to the text. Explanatory footnotes are acceptable, but more extensive table “legends” are not. Footnotes should not include detailed descriptions of the experiment. Tables must include enough information to warrant table format. Tables are consecutively numbered with Arabic numerals (Table 1, 2, etc.), according to the order of appearance in the main text. Each table carries a short title describing its contents in relation to the main text. Except for the heading and bottom of the table, avoid horizontal dividing lines; vertical lines are completely omitted from any table. Instead, the first column is left-aligned, and other columns are generally centered. (When making tables, use “insert” command and not “tabulation”). Only the first letter of each heading is capitalized, and any units appear in parentheses after or under the corresponding heading in roman characters. Footnotes are collected under a table and referred to in the table by superscript letters (a, b, etc.). References in tables are numbered between square brackets, e.g., [5]. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared as done for conventional manuscripts.


You are required to submit high-resolution images, preferably with your initial submission but no later than revision stage. Computer-generated images may be processed only minimally. Processing (e.g., changing contrast, brightness, or colour balance) is acceptable only if applied to all parts of the image, as well as to the controls, equally, and descriptions of all such adjustments and the tools used (both hardware and software) must be provided in the manuscript. Unprocessed data and files must be retained by the authors and be provided to the editor on request. Electronic images (figures and schemes) must be at a minimum resolution of 600 d.p.i. for line drawings (black and white) and 300 d.p.i. for colour or greyscale. Colour figures must be supplied in CMYK not RGB colours. We cannot accept any Microsoft Office files (Power-Point, Word, Excel) for colour illustrations because they are restricted to the RGB colour space. Magnification is indicated by a scale bar. Please ensure that the prepared electronic image files print at a legible size (with lettering of at least 2 mm).

A number of different file formats are acceptable, including: PowerPoint (.ppt), Tagged Image File Format (.tif), Encapsulated PostScript (.eps), Joint Photographic Experts Group (.jpg), Graphics Interchange Format (.gif), Adobe Illustrator (.ai) (please save your files in Illustrator’s EPS format), Portable Network Graphics (.png), Microsoft Word (.doc), Rich Text Format (.rtf) and Excel (.xls) but not Portable Document Format (.pdf).

In the text, indicate where figures should appear: these call-outs are written as “Fig.1, Fig.2”, etc. Please ensure that the figure is clearly labelled with its figure number.

Size and layout: The area of a page is 230 mm (height); 84 mm (single) or 178 mm (double) (column width). Figures should not exceed these dimensions and ideally should fit either a single or double column. Lettering should be of a consistent size within each figure.

Colour figures: The use of colour in figures may improve clarity in some cases. Although there are no formal colour charges, the use of colour is subject to editorial discretion. If an Editor or the Production office recommend a colour figure to be printed in black and white and the author disagree, the author will be offered the option to pay for the colour, otherwise it will be printed in black and white.

Use of colour combinations: Please note that the use of red and green in figures is particularly problematic for approximately 5% of the male population. Advice on the preparation of colour-friendly figures is provided at

Representation of experimental data as computer images: If primary experimental data are presented in the form of a computer-generated image (such as those from a PhosphorImager or digital camera), any editing must be described in detail. A linear (rather than sigmoidal) relationship between signal and image intensity is assumed. Unless stated, it is assumed that the image is unedited.

Inappropriate manipulation of images to highlight desired results is not allowed.

Cover figures: Authors are encouraged to submit colour figures to be considered for use of the cover of Journal of Biotechnology and Biodiversity. If you would like to submit a cover image for consideration, please contact for details.