To avoid unnecessary delays authors should adhere strictly to the following instructions.


Manuscripts must be clearly and concisely written in English. American or British English usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these. To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the ‘spell check’ function of your word processing program. The Editors reserve the right to reject without review those that cannot adequately be assessed because of a poor standard of English. Authors who are unsure of proper English usage should have their manuscripts checked by someone proficient in the English language BEFORE submitting and/or resubmitting the paper. The journal does not correct the English syntax.


Papers should be of a length appropriate for the amount of information contained. For full length original report should be no more than 4,000 words excluding abstract and references. Short communications should follow the instructions for original reports, contains 100 words (abstract), 2000 words (main text), 20 references maximum, 3 figures/tables total. Review articles should be no more than 3,000 words. Correspondence, for comments on previously published articles or any other items of interest to biotechnology and biodiversity, should be no more than 500 words. Comments, suggestions and criticisms also are appreciated and will be published as “Letters to the Editor” also should be no more than 500 words. Papers published that occupy more than 10 pages incur a charge of $10 for each page in excess of 10. There is a $25 page charges for papers of 10 pages or less.

Text – files and format

The manuscript text (including references, figure legends and simple tables) may be in .doc or .rtf format. For your initial submission only, a .pdf file is also acceptable unless you are submitting to the Database issue. Revised manuscripts and all submissions to the Database issue must be in .doc or .rtf format only.

Presentation of Nucleic Acid Sequences

Nucleic acid sequences of limited length which are the primary subject of a study may be presented freestyle in the most effective format. Longer nucleic acid sequences must be presented as figures in the following format to conserve space. Print the sequence in lines of approximately 100 to 120 nucleotides in a non-proportional (mono-space) font that is easily legible when published with a line length of 6 inches (ca. 15.2 cm). If possible, lines of nucleic acid sequence should be further subdivided into blocks of 10 or 20 nucleotides by spaces within the sequence or by marks above it. Uppercase and lowercase letters may be used to designate the exon-intron structure, transcribed regions, etc., if the lowercase letters remain legible at a 6-inch (ca. 15.2-cm) line length. Number the sequence line by line; place numerals, representing the first base of each line, to the left of the lines. Minimize spacing between lines of sequence, leaving room only for annotation of the sequence. Annotation may include boldface, underlining, brackets, boxes, etc. Encoded amino acid sequences may be presented, if necessary, immediately above or below the first nucleotide of each codon, by using the single-letter amino acid symbols. Comparisons of multiple nucleic acid sequences should conform as nearly as possible to the same format.

Computer programs

For Computational Biology papers that describe a computer program, the authors should either make the program accessible as a web server with no login requirements or be prepared to make available to the reviewers an executable version of the program and instructions for use. Any costs associated with a reader acquiring the program must be specified in the text. Note that in general any complicated mathematics needed to explain an algorithm should be included as supplementary material.

Supplementary data

Manuscripts may include supplementary data to be made available by the publisher as online-only content, linked to the online manuscript. Such data should consist of electronic files and should not merely be a link to another web site. Manuscripts accompanied by online Supplementary data are designated with an ‘S’ in the Table of Contents in the print edition. For a definition of Supplementary data and guidelines for submitting it please contact