The Erratum section provides a means of correcting errors that occurred during the writing, typing, editing, or printing (e.g., a misspelling, a dropped word or line, or mislabelling in a figure) of a published article.

Authors’ Corrections

The Author’s Correction section provides a means of correcting errors of omission (e.g., author names or citations) and errors of a scientific nature that do not alter the overall basic results or conclusions of a published article (e.g., an incorrect unit of measurement or order of magnitude used throughout, contamination of one of numerous cultures, or misidentification of a mutant strain, causing erroneous data for only a portion [noncritical] of the study). Note that the addition of new data is not permitted. For corrections of a scientific nature or issues involving authorship, including contributions and use or ownership of data and/or materials, all disputing parties must agree, in writing, to publication of the Correction. For omission of an author’s name, letters must be signed by the authors of the article and the author whose name was omitted. The editor who handled the article will be consulted if necessary.


Retractions are reserved for major errors or breaches of ethics that, for example, may call into question the source of the data or the validity of the results and conclusions of an article. Letters of agreement signed by all of the authors must be supplied as supplemental material (scanned PDF files). The Retraction will be assigned to Editor-in-Chief of the journal, and the editor who handled the paper will be consulted. If all parties agree to the publication and content of the Retraction, it will be sent to the Journals Department for publication.

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